Free Radicals and Antioxidants ( a short explanation )

Monday, December 19, 2011

In our bodies, several processes can generate free radicals, including exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight, exposure to x-rays, and some reactions that occur during normal metabolic processes. Free radicals may have positive, negative, or zero charge. With some exceptions, the unpaired electrons cause radicals to be highly chemically reactive. Certain harmful substances, such as carbon tetrachloride (a solvent used in dry cleaning), also give rise to free radicals when they participate in metabolic reactions in the body. Among the many disorders, diseases, and conditions linked to oxygen-derived free radicals are cancer, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer disease, emphysema, diabetes mellitus, cataracts, macular degeneration, rheumatoid arthritis, and deterioration associated with aging.

wrinklesPic : The differences between 2 women who use Antioxidant for 5 years and who don’t ( guest who ? )

Antioxidants work to protect lipids from peroxidation by radicals. Antioxidants are effective because they are willing to give up their own electrons to free radicals. Consuming more antioxidants—substances that inactivate oxygen-derived free radicals—is thought to slow the pace of damage caused by free radicals. Important dietary antioxidants include selenium, zinc, beta-carotene, and vitamins C and E.

So start using antioxidant right now Smile

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Hagar and Sarah

Wednesday, December 7, 2011

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This is the story about Hagar the slavery and Sarah the freedom

Galatians 4 : 21 - 28
21 Tell me, you who want to be under the law, are you not aware of what the law says? 22 For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by the slave woman and the other by the free woman. 23 His son by the slave woman was born according to the flesh, but his son by the free woman was born as the result of a divine promise.
24 These things are being taken figuratively: The women represent two covenants. One covenant is from Mount Sinai and bears children who are to be slaves: This is Hagar. 25 Now Hagar stands for Mount Sinai in Arabia and corresponds to the present city of Jerusalem, because she is in slavery with her children. 26 But the Jerusalem that is above is free, and she is our mother. 27 For it is written:
   “Be glad, barren woman,
   you who never bore a child;
shout for joy and cry aloud,
   you who were never in labor;
because more are the children of the desolate woman
   than of her who has a husband.”[a]
28 Now you, brothers and sisters, like Isaac, are children of promise. 29 At that time the son born according to the flesh persecuted the son born by the power of the Spirit. It is the same now. 30 But what does Scripture say? “Get rid of the slave woman and her son, for the slave woman’s son will never share in the inheritance with the free woman’s son.”[b] 31 Therefore, brothers and sisters, we are not children of the slave woman, but of the free woman. 

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The Main Reason Why Christian Celebrate Christmas

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Why Christian celebrate Christmas every year aren’t they bored ?
I wonder what is the main reason why Christian around the universe Celebrate Christmas. So I went to search from many people, expert, book, internet and I found this unbelievable reason that I can’t understand easily because how can a Father do such thing to his Son ! so here is the reason :

From John 3 : 16 - 21

16 For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life. 17 For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but to save the world through him. 18 Whoever believes in him is not condemned, but whoever does not believe stands condemned already because they have not believed in the name of God’s one and only Son. 19 This is the verdict: Light has come into the world, but people loved darkness instead of light because their deeds were evil. 20 Everyone who does evil hates the light, and will not come into the light for fear that their deeds will be exposed. 21 But whoever lives by the truth comes into the light, so that it may be seen plainly that what they have done has been done in the sight of God.

Jesus died at the Cross just for human for us, did you got it ? Father and Son love you soooooooooooo much, He love you and love you and always love you.

Left one question, do you love Him too ???


Glitter Comments - http://www.glittergraphictext.com
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Hipertensi pada perempuan ( Women Hypertension )

Tuesday, December 6, 2011

 

imagesObat kontraseptif oral dapat meningkatkan tekanan darah dan resiko  meningkat dengan lamanya penggunaan. Perempuan yang menggunakan obat oral kontraseptif harus memeriksa tekanan darah secara teratur.

 

Timbulnya hipertensi adalah suatu alasan untuk mempertimbangkan penggunaan kontrasepsi lainnya. Sebaliknya, terapi pengganti hormon tidak menaikkan tekanan darah.

Wanita hamil dengan hipertensi harus dimonitor dengan hati-hati karena resiko ke ibu dan fetus akan meningkat. Metildopa, penyekat beta, dan vasodilator adalah obat-obat yang disukai demi keamanan fetus. ACEI dan ARB tidak boleh digunakan selama kehamilan karena berpotensi untuk cacat fetus dan harus dihindari pada perempuan yang diduga hamil atau berencana hamil. Preeklampsia timbul setelah minggu gestasi ke 20, ditandai dengan onset baru atau bertambah parahnya hipertensi, albuminuria, dan hiperurisemia, kadang-kadang dengan abnormalitas koagulasi.

Pada beberapa pasien, preeklampsi dapat menjadi hipertensi urgensi atau emergensi dan mungkin harus dirawat di rumah sakit, di monitor secara intensif dan dengan menggunakan terapi antihipertensi parenteral dan terapi antikonvulsi.

Source :

Buku Saku Pharmaceutical Care untuk pasien penyakit hipertensi – Depkes

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Photography All The Time 2

Saturday, November 19, 2011

You can find pictures anywhere. It's simply a matter of noticing things and organizing them. You just have to care about what's around you and have a concern with humanity and the human comedy.
Elliott Erwitt

 

The Lights

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Twins

two side

Pic 2

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Achilles Tendon Rupture

Author: Brian A Jacobs, MD, FACSM; Chief Editor: Sherwin SW Ho, MD more...

Background

Achilles-rupture1Achilles tendon ruptures commonly occur to otherwise healthy men between the ages of 30 and 50 years who have had no previous injury or problem reported in the affected leg. Those who suffer this injury are typically "weekend warriors" who are active intermittently.

Most Achilles tendon tears occur in the left leg in the substance of the tendoachilles, approximately 2-6 cm – the "watershed zone" – above the calcaneal insertion of the tendon. That the left Achilles tendon is torn more frequently may be related to handedness; right-handed individuals "push off" more frequently with the left foot.

The most common mechanisms of injury include sudden forced plantar flexion of the foot, unexpected dorsiflexion of the foot, and violent dorsiflexion of a plantar flexed foot. Other mechanisms include direct trauma and, less frequently, attrition of the tendon as a result of longstanding peritenonitis with or without tendinosis. [1, 2, 3]

Other populations at risk for an Achilles tendon rupture include those who are poorly conditioned, those of advanced age, those who have been using fluoroquinolone antibiotics, those who have used corticosteroids, and those who overexert themselves.

Besides Achilles tendon rupture, which the remainder of this article will focus on, there is also a spectrum of Achilles tendon injuries, including peritenonitis, tendinosis, and peritenonitis with tendinosis. [1, 2, 3]

Patients with peritenonitis will usually note a localized burning pain that accompanies or follows activity and tracks along the tendoachilles.

Peritenonitis with tendinosis will generally present with activity-related pain, swelling, and sometimes crepitation along the tendon sheath, with or without the presence of nodularity. More severe symptoms may include pain at rest.

Tendinosis is a late-stage manifestation of this problem, characterized by mucoid degeneration of the tendoachilles itself, with a lack of inflammatory response and symptoms characterized by a sense of fullness or nodularity in the posterior aspect of the tendoachilles.

Epidemiology

Frequency

United States

Although the worldwide frequency of Achilles tendon ruptures is not known, data collected from Finland estimates that it occurs in 18 per 100,000 people yearly. The male-to-female ratio of rupture is estimated from 1.7:1 to 12:1.

Functional Anatomy

The Achilles tendon is the largest and strongest tendon in the human body, and it is formed from tendinous contributions of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. The tendons converge approximately 15 cm proximal to the insertion at the posterior calcaneus. When viewed in cross section, the right Achilles tendon appears to spiral counterclockwise 30-150 º toward its insertion at the calcaneus; the left Achilles tendon spirals clockwise analogously.

The spiraling of the tendon as it reaches the calcaneus allows for elongation and elastic recoil within the tendon, facilitating storage and release of energy during locomotion. This phenomenon also allows higher shortening velocities and greater instantaneous muscle power than could be generated by the gastrocsoleus complex alone.

Because actin and myosin are present in tenocytes, tendons have almost ideal mechanical properties for the transmission of force from muscle to bone. Tendons are stiff but resilient, possess a high tensile strength, and have the ability to stretch up to 4% before damage occurs. [4, 5] With stretch greater than 8%, macroscopic rupture occurs.

The blood supply for the Achilles tendon is derived from the posterior tibial artery and its contributions to the musculotendinous junction, as well as the mesosternal vessels which cross the paratenon, infiltrating the tendon and the bone-tendon junction at the calcaneus. [6] The watershed zone is an area 2-6 cm proximal to the calcaneus, in which the blood supply is less abundant and becomes even sparser with age. It is in this region that most degeneration and therefore rupture of the Achilles tendon occurs. Because younger tendons have better blood supply, significantly higher tensile strength, and less stiffness, they tend to rupture less frequently. [4, 5]

Sport-Specific Biomechanics

The peak Achilles tendon force (F) and the mechanical work (W) by the calf muscles are respectively approximately 2200N and 35J in the squat jump, 1900N and 30J in the countermove jump, and 3800N and 50J when hopping. [7] The estimated peak load is 6-8 times the body weight during running with a tensile force of greater than 3000N. On average, Achilles tendons in women have a smaller cross-sectional area than in men. This possibly suggests that less force is generated in a woman’s Achilles tendon than the figures noted above, which may account for the lower rate of rupture in women. [7]

References

  1. [Best Evidence] Khan RJ, Fick D, Keogh A, et al. Treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures. A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. J Bone Joint Surg Am. Oct 2005;87(10):2202-10. [Medline].
  2. Schepsis AA, Jones H, Haas AL. Achilles tendon disorders in athletes. Am J Sports Med. Mar-Apr 2002;30(2):287-305. [Medline].
  3. Keene JS. Tendon injuries of the foot and ankle. In: DeLee JC, Drez D, eds. Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders; 1994:1768-1805.
  4. Maffulli N. Rupture of the Achilles tendon. J Bone Joint Surg Am. Jul 1999;81(7):1019-36. [Medline]. [Full Text]. Moore KL. Clinically Oriented Anatomy. 3 rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999.
  5. Carr AJ, Norris SH. The blood supply of the calcaneal tendon. J Bone Joint Surg Br. Jan 1989;71(1):100-1. [Medline]. [Full Text].
  6. Kader D, Saxena A, Movin T, Maffulli N. Achilles tendinopathy: some aspects of basic science and clinical management. Br J Sports Med. Aug 2002;36(4):239-49. [Medline]. [Full Text].
  7. O'Brien T. The needle test for complete rupture of the Achilles tendon. J Bone Joint Surg Am. Sep 1984;66(7):1099-101. [Medline]. [Full Text].
  8. Saltzman CL, Tearse DS. Achilles tendon injuries. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. Sep-Oct 1998;6(5):316-25. [Medline].
  9. Puddu G, Ippolito E, Postacchini F. A classification of Achilles tendon disease. Am J Sports Med. Jul-Aug 1976;4(4):145-50. [Medline].
  10. Clement DB, Taunton JE, Smart GW. Achilles tendinitis and peritendinitis: etiology and treatment. Am J Sports Med. May-Jun 1984;12(3):179-84. [Medline].
  11. Metz R, Verleisdonk EJ, van der Heijden GJ, et al. Acute Achilles tendon rupture: minimally invasive surgery versus nonoperative treatment with immediate full weightbearing--a randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. Jul 21 2008;epub ahead of print. [Medline].
  12. [Best Evidence] Twaddle BC, Poon P. Early motion for Achilles tendon ruptures: is surgery important? A randomized, prospective study. Am J Sports Med. Dec 2007;35(12):2033-8. [Medline].
  13. Chalmers J. Review article: Treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). Jun 2000;8(1):97-99. [Medline]. [Full Text].
  14. Cetti R, Christensen SE, Ejsted R, Jensen NM, Jorgensen U. Operative versus nonoperative treatment of Achilles tendon rupture. A prospective randomized study and review of the literature. Am J Sports Med. Nov-Dec 1993;21(6):791-9. [Medline].
  15. Ma GW, Griffith TG. Percutaneous repair of acute closed ruptured achilles tendon: a new technique. Clin Orthop Relat Res. Oct 1977;128:247-55. [Medline].
  16. Elliot RR, Calder JD. Percutaneous and mini-open repair of acute Achilles tendon rupture. Foot Ankle Clin. Dec 2007;12(4):573-82, vi. [Medline]. DeLee JC, Drez D Jr, Miller MD, eds. Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 2 nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders; 2003.
  17. [Best Evidence] Pajala A, Kangas J, Siira P, Ohtonen P, Leppilahti J. Augmented compared with nonaugmented surgical repair of a fresh total Achilles tendon rupture. A prospective randomized study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. May 2009;91(5):1092-100. [Medline].
  18. Balasubramaniam P, Prathap K. The effect of injection of hydrocortisone into rabbit calcaneal tendons. J Bone Joint Surg Br. Nov 1972;54(4):729-34. [Medline]. [Full Text].
  19. Bring DK, Reno C, Renstrom P, et al. Joint immobilization reduces the expression of sensory neuropeptide receptors and impairs healing after tendon rupture in a rat model. J Orthop Res. Jul 24 2008;epub ahead of print. [Medline].
  20. Maffulli N, Ajis A. Management of chronic ruptures of the Achilles tendon. J Bone Joint Surg Am. Jun 2008;90(6):1348-60. [Medline]. [Full Text].
  21. Neuhold A, Stiskal M, Kainberger F, Schwaighofer B. Degenerative Achilles tendon disease: assessment by magnetic resonance and ultrasonography. Eur J Radiol. May-Jun 1992;14(3):213-20. [Medline].
  22. Thompson TC, Doherty JH. Spontaneous rupture of tendon of Achilles: a new clinical diagnostic test. J Trauma. 1963;12:126-9.

Medscape Reference © 2011 WebMD, LLC

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In Memoriam of Memecan ( My Lovely Dog )

Monday, October 31, 2011

"Memecan"
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He is my Dog, I love him sooooo Much. He died last year and how i miss him so much right now :(

"He is my other eyes that can see above the clouds; my other ears that hear above the winds. He is the part of me that can reach out into the sea. He has told me a thousand times over that I am his reason for being; by the way he rests against my leg; by the way he thumps his tail at my smallest smile; by the way he shows his hurt when I leave without taking him. (I think it makes him sick with worry when he is not along to care for me.) When I am wrong, he is delighted to forgive. When I am angry, he clowns to make me smile. When I am happy, he is joy unbounded. When I am a fool, he ignores it. When I succeed, he brags. Without him, I am only another man. With him, I am all-powerful. He is loyalty itself. He has taught me the meaning of devotion. With him, I know a secret comfort and a private peace. He has brought me understanding where before I was ignorant. His head on my knee can heal my human hurts. His presence by my side is protection against my fears of dark and unknown things. He has promised to wait for me... whenever... wherever - in case I need him. And I expect I will - as I always have. He is just my dog." - Gene Hill

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Singapore Experienced ( Jalan- jalan Asyik ke Singapura ) – Part 1

Saturday, October 29, 2011


Jika anda belum pernah ke luar negeri dan ingin mencoba pergi ke luar negeri, maka destinasi pertama yang saya sarankan untuk anda kunjungi adalah Singapura, karena hanya Singapura lah satu-satunya negara di kawasan Asia Tenggara yang paling berbeda dari negara - negara lainnya ( menurut pengalaman saya ) dimana negara - negara kawasan Asia Tenggara lainnya saya rasa mirip dengan kota-kota besar lainnya di Indonesia seperti Jakarta. Jalan-jalan ke luar negeri seperti Singapura sekarang ini jauh lebih murah daripada jalan-jalan di dalam negeri sendiri contohnya ke Bali ( kok bisa ya??).

Singapura merupakan negara yang sangat kecil, kita dapat menjelajahi seluruh Negara singapura hanya dalam waktu 1 hari ( capekkkk bos ) ya kalo mau nyantai minimal kita liburan disana selama 4 hari 3 malam untuk dapat mengunjungi seluruh bagian Singapura dan menikmati semua pusat hiburan di Singapura.

Terdapat banyak penerbangan dari Indonesia ke Singapura yang sangat terjangkau mulai dari AirAsia, Tiger Airways, Lion Air. Bahkan Garuda Indonesia sering memberikan harga promo untuk penerbangan ke Singapura.

Banyak hotel maupun penginapan yang cukup terjangkau di Singapura, jika hanya liburan yang pendek lebih enak di hotel tapi jika ingin tinggal lebih lama bisa menyewa apartemen. Saya biasanya memakai jasa travel untuk urusan penginapan saya di Singapura tapi kita bisa juga langsung booking melalui internet, saya biasanya memakai jasa Agoda untuk booking hotel melalui internet.

Di Singapura terdapat banyak pilihan transportasi mulai dari taxi, bus dan MRT. Tapi saya menyarankan untuk memakai MRT saja, biaya Taxi disana sangat mahal. Jalur dari MRT sendiri sudah menjangkau keseluruhan negara Singapura sehingga kita dapat menggunakan jasa transportasi ini untuk berpetualang di sana.

Pusat hiburan maupun tempat – tempat wisata bertebaran di setiap sudut kota Singapura wajib di kunjungi satu persatu.

100_8143
Pasar Bugis di Bugis Street salah satu tempat yang wajib untuk di kunjungi
100_8159
Orchard Road
100_8162
Orchard Road
100_8190
Pusat Informasi bagi wisatawan yang terletak di Orchard Road
100_8239
ChinaTown
100_8247
Little India
100_8243
Clarke Quay
100_8214
Universal Studio
100_8228
Universal Studio


To be Continued Part 2 ...

READ MORE - Singapore Experienced ( Jalan- jalan Asyik ke Singapura ) – Part 1

Penyakit Menular Seksual ( PMS ) dan HIV/AIDS

Thursday, September 29, 2011

Slide mengenai PMS dan HIV/AIDS dibawakan dalam ‘Pertemuan pemuda GKII Nanga Pinoh Melawi Kalimantan Barat 2011

 

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From Many sources

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Tips aman menggunakan APMK ( alat pembayaran menggunakan kartu ) dan Uang elektronik

Tuesday, September 27, 2011

 

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Kiat Aman Menggunakan Kartu Kredit

  1. Simpan dengan aman semua kartu dan nomor rekening  bank Anda.

  2. Sebelum membuang dokumen keuangan Anda, pastikan dokumen keuangan tersebut dihancurkan terlebih dahulu.

  3. Simpan lembar tagihan Kartu Kredit Anda dengan aman.

  4. Pastikan Anda mengambil kembali Kartu Kredit Anda dan bukti pembayaran setiap selesai bertransaksi.

  5. Jika Anda sering melakukan transaksi secara online di internet, instal software pengaman pada komputer Anda, untuk mengurangi kemungkinan pembajakan.

  6. Gunakan kata sandi yang tidak mudah diketahui orang lain untuk melindungi data internet banking dan rekening bank Anda.

  7. Gunakan situs belanja online yang terpercaya.

  8. Segera tanda tangani panel di belakang Kartu Kredit pada saat menerima kartu baru. Hal ini untuk mengurangi risiko kartu dimanfaatkan oleh pihak lain untuk bertransaksi.

  9. Jaga kerahasiaan nomor kartu termasuk security number berupa 3 digit angka di belakang kartu.

  10. Cek tagihan, dengan selalu melakukan pencocokan antara bukti transaksi dengan billing statement. Jika terdapat transaksi yang mencurigakan, segera lapor kepada Penerbit kartu kredit untuk dilakukan investigasi.

  11. Jangan pernah meminjamkan Kartu Kredit kepada siapapun atau meninggalkan kartu dan bukti transaksi tanpa pengawasan.

  12. Berhati-hati terhadap berbagai penawaran melalui telepon dan email.

Kiat Aman Menggunakan Kartu ATM/Debet

  1. Nasabah dihimbau untuk mengganti PIN secara berkala dan hindari nomor PIN yang mudah ditebak seperti tanggal lahir atau nomor telepon

  2. Lindungi kerahasiaan PIN dengan menutup dengan tangan ketika memasukkan PIN atau gunakan ATM yang telah memakai PIN cover atau yang telah dilengkapi dengan anti skimming.
    Hal tersebut berlaku jika Anda melakukan transaksi belanja di merchant pada mesin EDC.

  3. Jangan memberitahukan PIN Anda kepada orang lain maupun tanda tangan Anda.

  4. Simpan kartu ATM/Debet di tempat yang aman.

  5. Jika kehilangan kartu, segera hubungi nomor telepon darurat institusi keuangan yang menerbitkan kartu Anda. Biasanya tertera pada sisi belakang kartu.

  6. Waspadalah terhadap lingkungan sekeliling ATM dan perhatikan kondisi fisik ATM maupun EDC pada merchant. Jika terdapat alat yang mencurigakan atau mesin dicurigai rusak, jangan melakukan transaksi pada mesin tersebut dan segera melaporkan kepada pihak penerbit kartu maupun pihak berwajib.

  7. Setelah Anda menarik tunai dana atau melakukan transaksi belanja Anda, segera ambil kembali kartu ATM/Debet dan simpan bukti transaksi ATM/Debet Anda.  Selalu lakukan pencocokan antara bukti transaksi dengan mutasi transaksi pada rekening Anda. Jika terdapat transaksi yang mencurigakan, segera lapor kepada penerbit kartu untuk dilakukan investigasi.

Kiat Aman Menggunakan Uang Elektronik

  1. Pastikan dana tersedia di dalam uang elektronik Anda saat Anda melakukan transaksi, karena pemakaian uang elektronik akan langsung mengurangi nilai yang tersimpan dalam uang elektronik Anda.

  2. Pastikan Anda mengambil kembali uang elektronik setelah pemakaian.

  3. Selalu cek jumlah nilai di uang elektronik Anda, hal ini untuk mengantisipasi pemakaian yang tidak Anda lakukan.

  4. Simpan uang elektronik Anda di tempat yang aman, jika uang elektronik Anda hilang atau dicuri, segera laporkan ke bank atau lembaga selain bank yang menerbitkan uang elektronik Anda.

Source : Bank Indonesia Official Site

READ MORE - Tips aman menggunakan APMK ( alat pembayaran menggunakan kartu ) dan Uang elektronik

New Documentary Film

Saturday, June 11, 2011



I got an opportunity to visited West Borneo Indonesia. Lived in a remote area in West Borneo, there I was inspired with one woman that work as a nurse in a hospital in that area. In a developing country many people are related with sickness. Nurse Hendrika with passion and love never stop to provided the best services to sick people, with her sadness experienced when she was a child, she raise up and become a great person that helping others with compassion and responsibility.





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Photography all the Time

Tuesday, May 10, 2011

If I could tell the story in words, I wouldn't need to lug around a camera - Lewis Hine

And in fact I don't believe there is such a thing as a definitive picture of something. The land is a living, breathing thing and light changes its character every second of every day. That's why I love it so much.  

 
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