Tes Fungsi Pendengaran ( Hearing Function Test )

Wednesday, September 16, 2009

Tes oendengaran ( hearing function test )

Terdapat berbagai macam uji pendengaran untuk mengetahui fungsi pendengaran seseorang dimulai dari tes yang sederhana sampai tes yang menggunakan peralatan yang canggih seperti audiometer.

Tes audiometer tergolong rumit dan sulit dilakukan sebab diperlukan ruangan yang kedap suara serta orang yang berkompetensi untuk menjalankan tes tersebut, sehingga yang banyak dilakukan untuk uji pendengaran adalah : tes suara ( Bisik, Konversasi ) dan tes garpu tala ( Scwabach, Rinne, Weber ).1

Tujuan dari tes pendengaran adalah :

  1. Menentukan apakah pendengaran seseorang normal atau tidak.
  2. Menentukan derajat kekurangan pendengaran.
  3. Menentukan lokalisasi penyebab gangguan pendengaran.2

Tes Suara

Tes Bisik : Normalnya tes bisik dapat didengar 10 – 15 meter. Tetapi biasa dipakai patokan 6 meter. Syarat melakukan tes Bisik :

  • Pemeriksa berdiri di belakang pasien supaya pasien tidak dapat membaca gerakan bibir pemeriksa.
  • Perintahkan pasien untuk meletakkan satu jari pada tragus telinga yang tidak diperiksa untuk mencegah agar pasien tidap dapat mendengar suara dari telinga itu.
  • Bisikkan kata pada telinga pasien yang akan diperiksa. Kata harus dimengerti oleh pasien, kata dibagi atas : yang mengandung huruf lunak ( m, n, l, d, h, g ) dan yang mengandung huruf desis ( s, c, f, j, v, z ).
  • Suruh pasien untuk mengulang kata – kata tersebut.
  • Sebut 10 kata ( normal 80 % ), yaitu 8 dari 10 kata atau 4 dari 5 kata.
  • Apabila penderita tidak / kurang mendengar huruf desis → tuli persepsi.
  • Apabila penderita tidak / kurang mendengar huruf lunak → tuli konduksi1

Gambar 3 : Tes Suara Bisik

clip_image001clip_image002clip_image003

Tes Konversasi : Caranya sama dengan tes bisik, tetapi tes ini menggunakan percakan biasa.

Tes Garpu Tala.

Tes Schwabach : Tes ini digunakan untuk membandingkan penghantaran bunyi melalui tulang penderita dan pemeriksa. Syarat melakukan tes Schwabach :

  • Gunakan garpu tala 256 atau 512 Hz.
  • Getarkan garpu tala.
  • Letakkan tegak lurus pada planum mastoid pemeriksa.
  • Apabila bunyi sudah tidak didengar lagi, segera garpu tala diletakkan pada planum mastoid penderita.
  • Lakukan hal ini sekali lagi tetapi sebaliknya lebih dahulu ke telinga penderita lalu ke telinga pemeriksa. Lakukan cara ini untuk telinga kiri dan kanan.
  • Normal jika pemeriksa sudah tak dapat mendengar suara dari garpu tala, maka penderita juga tidak dapat mendengar suara dari garpu tala tersebut.
  • Tuli Konduksi apabila pemeriksa sudah tidak dapat mendengar suara dari garpu tala tetapi penderita masih dapat mendengarnya ( Schwabach memanjang ).
  • Tuli persepsi apabila pemeriksa masih dapat mendengar suara dari garpu tala tetapi penderita sudah tidak dapat mendengar lagi.3

Tes Rinne : Tes ini digunakan untuk membandingkan penghantaran bunyi melalui tulang dan melalui udara pada penderita. Syarat melakukan tes Rinne :

  • Garpu tala digetarkan.
  • Letakkan tegak lurus pada planum mastoid penderita, ini disebut posisi 1 ( satu ).
  • Setelah bunyi sudah tidak terdengar lagi letakkan garpu tala tegak lurus di depan meatus akustikus eksterna, ini disebut posisi 2 (dua ).
  • Kalau pada posisi 2 masih terdengar bunyi → Tes Rinne (+).
  • Kalau pada posisi 2 tidak terdengar bunyi → Tes Rinne (–).
  • Kalau pada posisi 1 terdengar berlawanan → Tes Rinne ragu – ragu4.

Gambar 4 : Tes Rinne

clip_image004clip_image005clip_image006

Tes Weber : Tes ini digunakan untuk membandingkan penghantaran bunyi melalui sebelah kanan / kiri penderita. Syarat melakukan tes Weber :

  • Garpu tala digetarkan.
  • Letakkan tegak lurus pada garis tengah kepala penderita, mis : dahi, ubun – ubun, rahang, kemudian suara yamg paling keras di kiri dan kanan.
  • Pada tes ini terdapat beberapa kemungkinan.
  • Bisa didapat hasil telinga kiri dan kanan sama keras terdengarnya, hal ini bisa berarati : normal atau ada gangguan pendengaran yang jenisnya sama.
  • Bisa juga didapatkan hasil telinga kiri > telinga kanan atau kiri < telinga kanan.
  • Lateralisasi ke kanan dapat berarti : adanya tuli konduksi sebelah kanan, telinga kiri dan kanan ada tuli konduksi, tetapi yang kanan lebih berat dari yang kiri, terdapat tuli persepsi disebelah kiri, keduanya tuli persepsi, keduanya tuli persepsi tetapi lebih berat yang kiri, kedua telinga tuli, kiri tuli persepsi, kanan tuli konduksi.5

Gambar 5 : Tes Weber

clip_image007clip_image008clip_image009

Berbagai macam tes diatas merupakan sebagian dari berbagai macam cara untuk mengetahui fungsi pendengaran seseorang. Sehingga untuk mengetahui dan mendiagnosa seseorang mengalami ketulian diperlukan tes – tes yang lain selain yang dipaparkan diatas.

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

  1. Anonymous., 2007. The Whisper Tes t. www.privatehealth.co.uk/diseases/ear-nose-throat/barotrauma-of-the-ear. Diakses pada tanggal 4 Agustus 2007, pk 15.00.
  2. Anonymous., 2007. The Ear Inspection. www.entornomedico.org /salud/saludyenfermedades/alfa-omega/barotrauma. Diakses pada tanggal 4 Agustus 2007, pk 15.00.
  3. Anonymous., 2007. The Schwabach Test. www.yahoohealth.com Diakses pada tanggal 4 Agustus 2007, pk 15.00.
  4. Anonymous., 2007. The Rinne Test. www.paraqueestesbien.com/ hombre/cabeza/oidos/oidos3. Diakses pada tanggal 4 Agustus 2007, pk 15.00.
  5. Anonymous., 2007. The Weber Test. www.yahoohealth.com Diakses pada tanggal 4 Agustus 2007, pk 15.00.

 

READ MORE - Tes Fungsi Pendengaran ( Hearing Function Test )

VERTIGO ( all in )

vertigo_pic

Vertigo is  a type of dizziness felt as a shift in a person's relationship to the normal environment (a feeling that the room is spinning is common) or a sense of movement in space.  As patients age, vertigo becomes an increasingly common presenting complaint. 

True vertigo, from the Latin "vertere," to turn, is a distinct, often severe form of dizziness that is a movement hallucination.

There are four major types of dizziness :

  1. vertigo
  2. presyncope
  3. disequilibrium, and
  4. lightheadedness.

Most patients with true vertigo have a peripheral vestibular disorder, such as benign positional vertigo. This is usually associated with tinnitus and hearing loss.

Central disorders, such as brain stem or cerebellar lesions, tend to be more chronic but less intense than peripheral disorders and are not associated with hearing loss. Central disorders account for only 15 percent of patients with vertigo.

Another very common cause of vertigo that worsens with a change in position is dehydration. Dehydration often follows vomiting or diarrhea. Vertigo often causes nausea and vomiting, so it may be hard to distinguish inner ear problems from dehydration. Victims of vertigo that gets worse with changes in position should be seen by a physician. Untreated, inner ear problems can lead to a loss of hearing and dehydration can lead to shock.

Any condition that affects the brain can cause vertigo. One of the easiest ways to remember other causes of vertigo is to use the mnemonic AEIOU TIPS :

  • A - alcohol
  • E - epilepsy or exposure
  • I - insulin 
  • O - overdose or oxygen deficiency
  • U - uremia
  • T - trauma
  • I - infection
  • P - psychosis or poisoning
  • S – stroke

Diagnosis of Vertigo

Because vertigo can have multiple concurrent causes (especially in older patients), a specific diagnosis can be elusive. The duration of vertiginous episodes and the presence or absence of auditory symptoms can help narrow the differential diagnosis (Table 1). Psychiatric disorders, motion sickness, serous otitis media, cerumen impaction, herpes zoster, and seizure disorders also can present with dizziness.

The physical examination should include measurements of orthostatic vital signs and an otoscopic examination. The neurologic examination should include the Dix-Hallpike maneuver to differentiate peripheral from central vertigo (Figure 1 ).

Table 1

Differential Diagnosis of Vertigo


  • Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo
  • Perilymphatic fistula (head trauma, barotrauma)
  • Vascular ischemia: transient ischemic attack
  • Ménière's disease
  • Syphilis
  • Vertiginous migraine
  • Labyrinthine concussion
  • Labyrinthitis
  • Vascular ischemia: stroke
  • Vestibular neuronitis
  • Anxiety disorder
  • Acoustic neuroma
  • Cerebellar degeneration
  • Cerebellar tumor
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Vestibular ototoxicity


figure 1.

1115_f1
Figure 1. Dix-Hallpike maneuver (used to diagnose benign paroxysmal positional vertigo). This test consists of a series of two maneuvers: With the patient sitting on the examination table, facing forward, eyes open, the physician turns the patient's head 45 degrees to the right (A). The physician supports the patient's head as the patient lies back quickly from a sitting to supine position, ending with the head hanging 20 degrees off the end of the examination table. The patient remains in this position for 30 seconds (B). Then the patient returns to the upright position and is observed for 30 seconds. Next, the maneuver is repeated with the patient's head turned to the left. A positive test is indicated if any of these maneuvers provide vertigo with or without nystagmus.

Drug Treatment of Vertigo

There are at least four major neurotransmitters of the vestibular system involved in the "three neuron arc" between the vestibular hair cells and oculomotor nuclei that drives the vestibulocular reflex. There are also a host of other neurotransmitters which modulate function. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter (Serafin et al, 1992). Acetylcholine (ACH) is both a peripheral and central agonist affecting muscarinic receptors. Receptors found in the pons and medulla, presumably those involved with dizziness, are almost exclusively of the M2 subtype (Barton et al, 1994). Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine are inhibitory neurotransmitters found in connections between second order vestibular neurons and onto oculomotor neurons (Spencer et al, 1992). Stimulation of the two types of GABA receptors, GABA-A and GABA-B, have similar effects on vestibular pathways (Neerven et al, 1989), but specific GABA-B agonists, such as baclofen, decrease the duration of vestibular responses in animal models (Cohen et al, 1987).

The circuitry by which several other neurotransmitters affect vestibular responses is less well understood. Histamine is found diffusely in central vestibular structures and centrally acting antihistamines modulate symptoms of motion sickness (Takeda et al, 1989). Both the H1 and H2 subtypes of histamine receptors affect vestibular responses (Serafin et al, 1992). Norepinephrine is involved centrally in modulating the intensity of reactions to vestibular stimulation (Wood, 1979) and also affects adaptation. Dopamine affects vestibular compensation, and serotonin is involved with nausea.

from many resourches

READ MORE - VERTIGO ( all in )

SISTEM AKUNTANSI ( Accounting System )

Tuesday, September 15, 2009

Sistem akuntansi adalah organisasi formulir, catatan, dan laporan yang dikoordinasi sedemikian rupa untuk menyediakan informasi keuangan yang dibutuhkan oleh manajemen guna memudahkan pengelolaan perusahaan.

Dari definisi tersebut, maka unsur suatu sistem akuntansi pokok adalah formulir, catatan yang terdiri dari jurnal, buku besar dan buku pembantu, serta laporan.

accounting

SISTEM AKUNTANSI DALAM PERUSAHAAN MANUFAKTUR

Kegiatan pokok perusahaan manufaktur terdiri dari : desain dan pengembangan produk, pengolahan bahan baku menjadi produk jadi, dan penjualan produk jadi kepada pembeli. Untuk menangani kegiatan pokok perusahaan, umumnya dirancang sistem akuntansi yang terdiri dari :

  1. Sistem akuntansi pokok.
  2. Sistem akuntansi piutang.
  3. Sistem akuntansi utang.
  4. Sistem akuntansi pengajian dan pengupahan.
  5. Sistem akuntansi biaya.
  6. Sistem akuntansi kas.
  7. Sistem akuntansi persediaan.
  8. Sistem akuntansi aktiva tetap.

BISNIS KARTU KREDIT ( Credit Card Business )

credit-card-main_Full

Bisnis kartu kredit pada dasarnya merupakan bisnis yang menjual jasa penagihan ( billing service ) kepada perusahaan – perusahaan penjual barang dan jasa melalui sistem penagihan ( billing system ). Melalui sistem penagihan yang dilakukan oleh perusahaan kartu kredit ( seperti Visa, MasterCard, American Express ).

BLOK BANGUNAN SISTEM AKUNTANSI

j0233312

Sistem akuntansi sebagai suatu bangunan sistem informasi memiliki 6 blok bangunan : masukan, model, keluaran, teknologi, basis data, dan pengendalian. Di antara enam blok bangunan sistem informasi tersebut, blok keluaran merupakan faktor penentu perancangan blok bangunan sistem informasi tersebut, blok keluaran merupakan faktor penentu perancangan blok bangunan sistem informasi yang lain.

Sistem akuntansi merupakan subsistem sistem informasi manajemen yang mengolah data keuangan menjadi informasi keuangan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pemakai intern maupun pemakai ekstern.

METODOLOGI PENGEMBANGAN SISTEM AKUNTANSI

economic_forecasting

Pengembangan sistem akuntansi dilaksanakan oleh analis sistem melalui tiga tahap utama : analisis sistem, desain sistem, dan implementasi sistem. Tahap analisis sistem merupakan tahap yang paling menentukan dalam proses pengembangan sistem akuntansi.

SISTEM AKUNTANSI PENGGAJIAN DAN PENGUPAHAN

Sistem akuntansi penggajian digunakan untuk menangani transaksi pembayaran atas penyerahan jasa yang dilakukan oleh karyawan yang mempunyai jenjang jabatan menajer. Sistem akuntansi pengupahan digunakan untuk menangani transaksi pembayaran atas penyerahan jasa yang dilakukan oleh karyawan pelaksana.

SISTEM AKUNTANSI BIAYA

Sistem akuntansi biaya dalam perusahaan manufaktur terdiri dari berbagai prosedur :

  1. Prosedur order produksi
  2. Prosedur permintaan dan pengeluaran barang gudang
  3. Prosedur pengembalian barang gudang
  4. Prosedur pencatatan jam kerja dan biaya tenaga kerja langsung
  5. Prosedur produk selesai dan pencatatan pembebanan biaya ovehead pabrik, dan
  6. Prosedur pencatatan bisya overhead pabrik sesungguhnya, biaya administrasi dan umum, dan biaya pemasaran.

SISTEM AKUNTANSI PENGELUARAN KAS

Dalam pelaksanaan transaksi pengeluaran kas perusahaan, penggunaan cek atas nama atau dengan pemindahbukuan menjamin diterimanya kas perusahaan oleh orang atau erusahaan yang dimaksud. Sistem pengeluaran kas dengan cek atas nama atau pemindahbukuan juga menjamin ketelitian dan keandalan catatan akuntansi kas perusahaan, karena melibatkan pihak ketiga ( bank ) yang secara periodik mengirimkan rekening koran bank sebagai dasar untuk melakukan rekonsilisasi catatan kas perusahaan.

source : Mulyadi, Sistem akuntansi, UGM

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HIGH PROTEIN FOODS

Sunday, September 13, 2009

high-protein_high-fiber-foods

Foods like eggs, milk, spinach, soybean, quinoa, meat, fish, whole grains, rice, beans, legumes, corn, oats, peas and peanut butter are good sources of high protein foods.

The table gives the protein content of foods. You should eat foods high in protein to remove your protein deficiency.

LIST I  ( Vegetarian List )

Vegetables and Beans

Description

Weight
(g)

Measure

Content per
Measure
(g)

Alfalfa seeds, sprouted, raw

33

1 cup

1.32

Artichokes, (globe or French), cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

120

1 medium

4.18

Asparagus, canned, drained solids

72

4 spears

1.54

Asparagus, cooked, boiled, drained

60

4 spears

1.55

Asparagus, frozen, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

180

1 cup

5.31

Avocados, raw, California

28.35

1 oz

0.60

Avocados, raw, Florida

28.35

1 oz

0.45

Beans, baked, canned, plain or vegetarian

254

1 cup

12.17

Beans, baked, canned, with franks

259

1 cup

17.48

Beans, baked, canned, with pork and sweet sauce

253

1 cup

13.43

Beans, baked, canned, with pork and tomato sauce

253

1 cup

13.05

Beans, black, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt

172

1 cup

15.24

Beans, Cowpeas (Blackeyes), immature seeds,  boiled, without salt

165

1 cup

5.23

Beans, Cowpeas (blackeyes), immature seeds, frozen, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

170

1 cup

14.43

Beans, Cowpeas, common (blackeyes, crowder, southern), mature seeds,

172

1 cup

13.30

Beans, great northern, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt

177

1 cup

14.74

Beans, Kidney beans, red, mature seeds, canned

256

1 cup

13.44

Beans, Kidney beans, red, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt

177

1 cup

15.35

Beans, Lima beans, large, mature seeds, canned

241

1 cup

11.88

Beans, Lima beans, large, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt

188

1 cup

14.66

Beans, Mung beans, mature seeds, sprouted, cooked, boiled,  without salt

124

1 cup

2.52

Beans, Mung beans, mature seeds, sprouted, raw

104

1 cup

3.16

Beans, Navy beans, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt

182

1 cup

15.83

Beans, Pinto beans, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt

171

1 cup

14.04

Soybeans, mature cooked, boiled, without salt

180

1 cup

22.23

Soybeans, green, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

172

1 cup

28.62

Beans, Snap beans, green, canned, regular pack, drained solids

135

1 cup

1.55

Beans, Snap beans, green, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

125

1 cup

2.36

Beans, White beans, mature seeds, canned

262

1 cup

19.02

Beet greens, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

144

1 cup

3.70

Beets, canned, drained solids

170

1 cup

1.55

Broccoli, raw

88

1 cup

2.62

Broccoli, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

156

1 cup

4.65

Beets, cooked, boiled, drained

170

1 cup

2.86

Beets, cooked, boiled, drained

50

1 beet

0.84

Cabbage, Chinese (pak-choi), cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

170

1 cup

2.65

Cabbage, Chinese (pe-tsai), cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

119

1 cup

1.79

Cabbage, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

150

1 cup

1.53

Cabbage, raw

70

1 cup

1.01

Cabbage, red, raw

70

1 cup

0.97

Cabbage, Savoy, raw

70

1 cup

1.40

Carrots, baby, raw

10

1 medium

0.08

Carrots, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

156

1 cup

1.70

Carrots, frozen, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

146

1 cup

1.74

Carrots, raw

110

1 cup

1.13

Cauliflower, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

124

1 cup

2.28

Cauliflower, frozen, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

180

1 cup

2.90

Cauliflower, raw

100

1 cup

1.98

Celery, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

150

1 cup

1.25

Celery, raw

120

1 cup

0.90

Corn, sweet, white, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

77

1 ear

2.56

Corn, sweet, yellow, canned, cream style, regular pack

256

1 cup

4.45

Corn, sweet, yellow, canned, vacuum pack, regular pack

210

1 cup

5.06

Corn, sweet, yellow, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

77

1 ear

2.56

Corn, sweet, yellow, frozen, kernels cut off cob, boiled, drained, without salt

164

1 cup

4.51

Corn, sweet, yellow, frozen, kernels on cob, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

63

1 ear

1.96

Cucumber, peeled, raw

119

1 cup

0.68

Cucumber, with peel, raw

104

1 cup

0.72

Dandelion greens, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

105

1 cup

2.10

Endive, raw

50

1 cup

0.63

Garlic, raw

3

1 clove

0.19

Lentils, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt

198

1 cup

17.86

Lettuce, cos or romaine, raw

56

1 cup

0.91

Lettuce, iceberg (includes crisphead types), raw

55

1 cup

0.56

Lettuce, looseleaf, raw

56

1 cup

0.73

Mushrooms, canned, drained solids

156

1 cup

2.92

Mushrooms, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

156

1 cup

3.39

Mushrooms, raw

70

1 cup

2.03

Mushrooms, shiitake, cooked, without salt

145

1 cup

2.26

Mushrooms, shiitake, dried

3.6

1 mushroom

0.34

Mustard greens, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

140

1 cup

3.16

Okra, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

160

1 cup

2.99

Okra, frozen, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

184

1 cup

3.83

Olives, ripe, canned (small-extra large)

22

5 large

0.18

Onions, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

210

1 cup

2.86

Onions, dehydrated flakes

5

1 tbsp

0.45

Onions, raw

110

1 whole

1.28

Onions, spring or scallions (includes tops and bulb), raw

100

1 cup

1.83

Parsley, raw

10

10 sprigs

0.30

Parsnips, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

156

1 cup

2.06

Peas, edible-podded, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

160

1 cup

5.23

Peas, edible-podded, frozen, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

160

1 cup

5.60

Peas, green, canned, regular pack, drained solids

170

1 cup

7.51

Peas, green, frozen, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

160

1 cup

8.24

Peas, split, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt

196

1 cup

16.35

Peppers, hot chili, green, raw

45

1 pepper

0.90

Peppers, hot chili, red, raw

45

1 pepper

0.90

Peppers, sweet, green, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

136

1 cup

1.25

Peppers, sweet, green, raw

149

1 cup

1.33

Peppers, sweet, green, raw

119

1 pepper

1.06

Peppers, sweet, red, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

136

1 cup

1.25

Peppers, sweet, red, raw

119

1 pepper

1.06

Potato pancakes, home-prepared

76

1 pancake

4.68

Potato, baked, flesh and skin, without salt

202

1 potato

5.05

Potatoes, baked, flesh, without salt

156

1 potato

3.06

Potatoes, boiled, cooked in skin, flesh, without salt

136

1 potato

2.54

Potatoes, boiled, cooked without skin, flesh, without salt

135

1 potato

2.31

Potatoes, boiled, cooked without skin, flesh, without salt

156

1 cup

2.67

Potatoes, hashed brown, home-prepared

156

1 cup

3.78

Pumpkin, canned, without salt

245

1 cup

2.70

Pumpkin, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

245

1 cup

1.76

Radishes, raw

4.5

1 radish

0.03

Spinach, canned, drained solids

214

1 cup

6.01

Spinach, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

180

1 cup

5.35

Spinach, frozen, chopped or leaf, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

190

1 cup

5.97

Spinach, raw

30

1 cup

0.86

Squash, summer, all varieties, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt

180

1 cup

1.64

Squash, summer, all varieties, raw

113

1 cup

1.33

Squash, winter, all varieties, cooked, baked, without salt

205

1 cup

1.82

Squash, winter, butternut, frozen, cooked, boiled, without salt

240

1 cup

2.95

Sweet potato, canned, syrup pack, drained solids

196

1 cup

2.51

Sweet potato, canned, vacuum pack

255

1 cup

4.21

Sweet potato, cooked, baked in skin, without salt

146

1 potato

2.51

Sweet potato, cooked, boiled, without skin, without salt

156

1 potato

2.57

Tomatoes, red, ripe, canned, stewed

255

1 cup

2.42

Tomatoes, red, ripe, canned, whole, regular pack

240

1 cup

2.21

Tomatoes, red, ripe, raw, year round average

180

1 cup

1.53

Tomatoes, red, ripe, raw, year round average

17

1 cherry tomato

0.14

Tomatoes, red, ripe, raw, year round average

123

1 tomato

1.05

Tomatoes, sun-dried

2

1 piece

0.28

Tomatoes, sun-dried, packed in oil, drained

3

1 piece

0.15

Watermelon, raw

286

1 wedge

1.77

Protein content of other Vegetarian Foods High in Protein

Description

Weight
(g)

Measure

Content per
Measure
(g)

Buckwheat flour, whole-groat

120

1 cup

15.14

Buckwheat groats, roasted, cooked

168

1 cup

5.68

Bulgur, cooked

182

1 cup

5.61

Bulgur, dry

138

1 cup

11.70

Cornmeal, degermed, enriched, yellow

140

1 cup

17.21

Cornmeal, whole-grain, yellow

122

1 cup

9.91

Noodles, chinese, chow mein

45

1 cup

3.77

Oat bran, cooked

219

1 cup

7.03

Oat bran, raw

94

1 cup

16.26

Peanut butter, smooth style, with salt

16

1 tbsp

4.03

Quinoa, cooked

-

1 cup

11

Rice, brown, long-grain, cooked

125

195

5.03

Rice, white, long-grain, regular, cooked

158

195

4.25

Rice, white, long-grain, regular, raw, enriched

158

185

13.19

Spaghetti, cooked, enriched, without added salt

140

1 cup

6.68

Spaghetti, whole-wheat, cooked

140

1 cup

7.46

Spaghetti, whole-wheat, cooked

140

1 cup

7.46

Tempeh

225

1 cup

31

Tofu, firm, prepared with calcium sulfate and magnesium chloride

81

1/4 block

6.51

Tofu, firm, prepared with calcium sulfate and magnesium chloride

120

1 piece

7.86

Wheat flour, white, all-purpose, enriched, bleached

125

1 cup

12.91

Veggie burger

1 patty

1 patty

5-24

Wheat flour, whole-grain

125

1 cup

16.44

Wheat flour, white, bread, enriched

125

137

16.41

Whole wheat bread

2 slices

2 slices

5

Source: USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

From the above table you can chose foods high in protein. Notice that there are many food choices that are high in protein such as beans, soybean, wheat flour and oat bran.

LIST II ( With Meat )
Beef
  • Hamburger patty, 4 oz – 28 grams protein
  • Steak, 6 oz – 42 grams
  • Most cuts of beef – 7 grams of protein per ounce
Chicken
  • Chicken breast, 3.5 oz - 30 grams protein
  • Chicken thigh – 10 grams (for average size)
  • Drumstick – 11 grams
  • Wing – 6 grams
  • Chicken meat, cooked, 4 oz – 35 grams
Fish
  • Most fish fillets or steaks are about 22 grams of protein for 3 ½ oz (100 grams) of cooked fish, or 6 grams per ounce
  • Tuna, 6 oz can - 40 grams of protein
Pork
  • Pork chop, average - 22 grams protein
  • Pork loin or tenderloin, 4 oz – 29 grams
  • Ham, 3 oz serving – 19 grams
  • Ground pork, 1 oz raw – 5 grams; 3 oz cooked – 22 grams
  • Bacon, 1 slice – 3 grams
  • Canadian-style bacon (back bacon), slice – 5 – 6 grams
Eggs and Dairy
  • Egg, large - 6 grams protein
  • Milk, 1 cup - 8 grams
  • Cottage cheese, ½ cup - 15 grams
  • Yogurt, 1 cup – usually 8-12 grams, check label
  • Soft cheeses (Mozzarella, Brie, Camembert) – 6 grams per oz
  • Medium cheeses (Cheddar, Swiss) – 7 or 8 grams per oz
  • Hard cheeses (Parmesan) – 10 grams per oz
Beans (including soy)
  • Tofu, ½ cup 20 grams protein
  • Tofu, 1 oz, 2.3 grams
  • Soy milk, 1 cup - 6 -10 grams
  • Most beans (black, pinto, lentils, etc) about 7-10 grams protein per half cup of cooked beans
  • Soy beans, ½ cup cooked – 14 grams protein
  • Split peas, ½ cup cooked – 8 grams
Nuts and Seeds
  • Peanut butter, 2 Tablespoons - 8 grams protein
  • Almonds, ¼ cup – 8 grams
  • Peanuts, ¼ cup – 9 grams
  • Cashews, ¼ cup – 5 grams
  • Pecans, ¼ cup – 2.5 grams
  • Sunflower seeds, ¼ cup – 6 grams
  • Pumpkin seeds, ¼ cup – 8 grams
  • Flax seeds – ¼ cup – 8 grams

LIST III ( No red meat )

This list of high protein foods is designed for optimum nutrition and good health.

You'll notice that, although the fat count is included, there's no listing for saturated fat. This is because the high protein foods included below are low in saturated fat.

For example, there's no red meat on this list of high protein foods. The reason is simple. Red meat is generally high in saturated fat and has also been shown to increase inflammation, which can cause pain, suffering and numerous health problems.

BEANS

FOOD

AMOUNT

CALORIES

PROTEIN

CARBS

FAT

Black beans

1/2 cup cooked

113

7.6

20.4

.5

Garbanzo (chickpeas)

1/2 cup cooked

134

7.3

22.5

2.1

Kidney beans

1/2 cup cooked

112

7.6

20.1

.4

Lentil beans

1/2 cup cooked

115

8.9

19.9

.4

Lima beans

1/2 cup cooked

108

7.3

19.6

.4

Navy beans

1/2 cup cooked

129

7.9

24.0

.5

Soybeans (edamame)

1/2 cup cooked

127

11.1

10.0

5.8

Tofu

1/2 cup fresh

94

10.0

2.3

5.9

DAIRY 

FOOD

AMOUNT

CALORIES

PROTEIN

CARBS

FAT

Cheddar cheese

1 ounce

114

  7.1

  .4

9.4

Cottage cheese

1/2 cup

110

14.0

3.1

5.0

Cottage cheese, lowfat

1/2 cup

  90

16.0

3.0

1.0

Egg

1 large

  75

  6.3

0

5.0

Milk, lowfat

1 cup

121

  8.1

11.7

4.7

Milk, skim

1 cup

  86

  8.4

11.8

  .4

Muenster cheese

1 ounce

104

  6.7

  .3

8.5

Swiss cheese

1 ounce

107

  8.1

1.0

7.8

Yogurt, lowfat

1 cup

144

11.9

16

3.5

Yogurt, nonfat

1 cup

127

13.0

17.4

  .4

FISH

FOOD

AMOUNT

CALORIES

PROTEIN

CARBS

FAT

Anchovies, in water

1 ounce

37

5.8

0

1.4

Halibut

3 ounces

93

17.7

0

2.0

Mackerel

3 ounces

180

15.8

0

11.8

Salmon

3 ounces

121

16.9

0

5.4

Sardines, in water

1 can

130

22.0

0

5.0

Tuna, tongol

1/4 cup

70

16.0

0

0

GRAINS

FOOD

AMOUNT

CALORIES

PROTEIN

CARBS

FAT

Oatmeal, rough cut

1 cup

145

6.0

25.2

2.4

Pancake, buckwheat

1 4" diameter

54

1.8

6.4

2.2

Pancake, whole wheat

1 4" diameter

74

3.4

8.8

3.2

Popcorn, dry

1 cup

54

1.8

10.7

.7

Rice, brown, cooked

1/2 cup

108

2.4

22.8

.8

Rye bread

1 slice

56

2.1

12

.3

Whole wheat bread

1 slice

56

2.4

11

.7

POULTRY

FOOD

AMOUNT

CALORIES

PROTEIN

CARBS

FAT

Chicken breast

4 ounces

193

29.3

0

7.6

Chicken, light meat, no skin

4 ounces

196

35.1

0

5.1

Chicken, dark meat, no skin

4 ounces

232

31.0

0

5.1

Turkey, light meat, no skin

4 ounces

178

33.9

0

3.7

Turkey, dark meat, no skin

4 ounces

212

32.4

0

8.2

LIST IV  ( Nutrition basics for bodybuilding )

strongmouse

There are 3 macronutrients that the human body needs in order to function properly.

Carbohydrates :
Carbohydrates are your body's main source of energy. When you ingest carbohydrates your pancreas releases a hormone called insulin. Insulin is very important because:
      1) It grabs the carbohydrates and either stores them in the muscle or stores them as fat.
     2) It grabs the amino acids (protein) and shelters them inside the muscle cell for recovery and repair.

Most people that are overweight and are in low fat/high carbohydrate diets got into that condition because they are eating an overabundance of carbohydrates. Too many carbohydrates cause a huge release of insulin. When there is too much insulin in the body, your body turns into a fat storing machine. Therefore, it is important that we eat no more carbohydrates than necessary and that we eat the right amount of carbohydrates.

Now that we have talked about the importance of having just the right amount of carbohydrates, let's talk about which are the best sources of carbohydrates.

Carbohydrates are divided into complex carbohydrates and simple carbohydrates. The complex carbohydrates give you sustained energy ("timed release") while the simple carbohydrates gives you immediate energy. It is recommended that you eat mainly complex carbohydrates throughout the day except after the workout where your body needs simple carbohydrates in order to replenish its glycogen levels immediately, something that will aid faster recuperation and rebuild of the muscle. Below is a list of good sources of carbohydrates. There are two types :
Complex Carbohydrates :
   1) Starchy: Oatmeal (1 cup dry), sweet potatoes (8 oz baked), potatoes (8 oz baked), rice (1 cup cooked), pasta (8oz cooked), corn (1 cup canned), peas (2 cups cooked). Each serving approximately equals 40-50 grams of carbohydrates.
   2) Fibrous: Broccoli (1/2 cup raw), carrots (1 cup raw), cauliflower (1/2 cup raw), green beans (1/2 cup raw), lettuce (5 cups raw), mushrooms (3/4 cups raw), pepper (1/2 cup raw), spinach (3-1/2 cups raw), zucchini (1 cup raw). Each serving approximately equals 6 grams of carbohydrates.
Simple Carbohydrates :
Apples (1 apple), bananas (1 banana), grapefruit (1 grapefruit), grapes (22 grapes), oranges (1-1/2 orange), pears (1 pear), pineapple (3/4 of a cup).
Each serving approximately equals 20-25 grams of carbohydrates.

Protein
Every tissue in your body is made up from protein (i.e., muscle, hair, skin, and nails). Proteins are the building blocks of muscle tissue. Without it, building muscle and burning fat efficiently would be impossible. Its importance is paramount. Protein also helps increase your metabolism every time you eat it by 20%! It also makes the carbohydrates timed release, so you get sustained energy throughout the day.

Everybody that is involved in a weight training program should consume between 1 gram of protein to 1.5 grams of protein per pound of lean body mass (meaning that if you are 100 lbs. And have 10% body fat, you should consume at least 90 g of protein since your lean body mass = 90 lbs.). Nobody should consume more than 1.5 grams per pound of lean body mass as this is unnecessary and the extra protein may get turned into fat.
Good examples of protein are eggs (I use Egg Substitute: 1-1/2 cups liquid), chicken breast (cooked, skinless and boneless: 6 oz), turkey (cooked, skinless and boneless: 6 oz), lean (90% lean) red meats (6 oz), and tuna (6 oz). Each serving size equals approximately 35-40 grams of protein.

Healthy Fats
All the cells in the body have some fat in them. Hormones are manufactured from fats. Also fats lubricate your joints. So if you eliminate the fat from your diet, then your hormonal production will go down and a whole array of chemical reactions will be interrupted. Your body will then start accumulating more body fat than usual so that it has enough fat to keep on functioning. Since testosterone production is halted, so is muscle building. Therefore, in order to have an efficient metabolism we need fat.
There are three types of fats: Saturated, polyunsaturated, and monounsaturated.
     1) Saturated Fats: Saturated fats are associated with heart disease and high cholesterol levels. They are found to a large extent in products of animal origin. However, some vegetable fats are altered in a way that increases the amount of saturated fats in them by a chemical process known as hydrogenation. Hydrogenated vegetable oils are generally found in packaged foods. In addition, cocunut oil, palm oil, and palm kernel oil, which are also frequently used in packaged foods and non-dairy creamers are also highly saturated. 
     2) Polyunsaturated Fats: Fats that do not have an effect in cholesterol levels. Most of the fats in vegetable oils, such as corn, cottonseed, safflower, soybean, and sunflower oil are polyunsaturated.
     3) Monounsaturated Fats: Fats that have a positive effect on the good cholesterol levels. These fats are usually high on the essential fatty acids and may have antioxidant properties. Sources of these fats are Fish Oils, Virgin Olive Oil, Canola Oil, and Flaxseed Oil. We like to refer to these type of fats as good fats.

Twenty percent of your calories should come from good fats. Any less than 20% and your hormonal production goes down. Any more than 20% and you start accumulating plenty of fat. The way that I get my fats is by taking 1 teaspoon of Flaxseed Oil three times a day (I put them in my protein shakes).

Good sources of fat are canola oil (1 tablespoon), natural peanut butter (2 tablespoons), olive oil (1 tablespoon), flaxseed oil (1 tablespoon), and fish oils (1 tablespoon). Each serving size contains approximately 14 grams of fat.

Water
Water is by far the most abundant substance in our body. Without water, an organism would not survive very long. Most people that come to me for advice on how to get in shape, almost always underestimate the value of water. Water is good for the following reasons :

    1) Over 65% of your body is composed of water (most of the muscle cell is water). 
    2) Water cleanses your body from toxins and pollutants that would get you sick. 
    3) Water is needed for all of the complex chemical reactions that your body needs to perform on a daily basis. Processes such as energy production, muscle building, and fat burning require water. A lack of water would interrupt all of these processes. 
    4) Water helps lubricate the joints. 
    5) When the outside temperature is up, water serves as a coolant to bring the body temperature down to where it is supposed to be.
    6) Water helps control your appetite. Sometimes when you feel hungry after a good meal this sensation indicates a lack of water. Drinking water at that time would take the craving away.
     7) Cold water increases your metabolism.
In order to know how much water your body needs a day, just multiply your lean body weight by .66. This would indicate how many ounces of water you need in a day.

Taken from : Hugo Rivera, About.com's Bodybuilding Guide and ISSA Certified Fitness Trainer.

READ MORE - HIGH PROTEIN FOODS

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